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Monday, October 17, 2011

HTML Introduction

What is an HTML File?

                   HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language

          An HTML file is a text file containing small markup tags

          The markup tags tell the Web browser how to display the page         
        An HTML file must have an .htm or .html file extension  
          An HTML file can be created using a simple text editor

What is HyperText?

Hypertext means that some text in the HTML document carries a link to a different location. Such links can be presented either on the same page or some other page located on another computer page. On clicking this 'hot spot', the viewer is transferred to that location.

What is Markup?

Markup means that specific portions of a document are marked up to indicate how they should be displayed in the browser.

HTML carries information about the web page though the display of the document is solely dependent on the browser. For this reason, you should test your HTML code in the two most used browsers, Internet Explorer from Microsoft and Netscape Communicator from Netscape. With HTML you can embed various objects such as images, video, sound in your pages.

.HTM or .HTML Extension?
When you save an HTML file, you can use either the .htm or the .html extension. We have used

.html in our examples. It might be a bad habit inherited from the past when some of the commonly used softwares only allowed three letter extensions. (With newer software we think it will be perfectly safe to use .html.)

Why do We Use Lowercase Tags?

We have just said that HTML tags are not case sensitive: <B> means the same as <b>. If you surf the Web, you will notice that plenty of web sites use uppercase HTML tags in their source code. We always use lowercase tags. Why?

If you want to follow the latest web standards, you should always use lowercase tags. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) recommends lowercase tags in their HTML 4 recommendation, and XHTML (the next generation HTML) demands lowercase tags.
Simple HTML File Structure

If you are running Windows, start Notepad. Type the following text.


<title>Title of page</title> 


<h1>This is my first html page.</h1> 

Save the file as "firstpage.html".

Start your Internet browser. Select "Open" in the File menu of your browser. A dialog box will appear. Select "Browse" and locate the HTML file you have just created - "firstpage.html" - select it and click "Open". Now you should see an address in the dialog box, for example "C:\MyDocuments\firstpage.html". Click OK, and the browser will display the page.

The first tag in your HTML document is <html>. This tag tells your browser that this is the start of an HTML document. The last tag in your document is </html>. This tag tells your browser that this is the end of the HTML document.

The text between the <head> tag and the </head> tag is header information. Header information is not displayed in the browser window.

The text between the <title> tags is the title of your document. The title is displayed in your browser's caption.

The text between the <body> tags is the text that will be displayed in your browser. To enlarge the text, add <h1> before the text and end it with </h1> tag.

Head Tags

The head element contains general information, also called meta-information, about a document. Meta means "information about".

The meta-data means information about data, or meta-information means information about information.

The Head tags are listed in the table below:

Tag                      Description     
<head>                            Defines information about the document
<title>                             Defines the document title
<base>                            Defines a base URL for all the links on a page
<link>                              Defines a resource reference
<!DOCTYPE>                    Defines the document type. This tag goes before the <html>  
                                      start tag
Keywords for Search Engines

Some search engines on the WWW will use the name and content attributes of the meta tag to index your pages.

This meta element defines keywords for your page:

<meta name="keywords" content="HTML, DHTML, CSS, XML, XHTML, JavaScript, VBScript">


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